Hudson Refinery Superfund Site
About this Superfund Site
Location: Cushing, Payne County, Oklahoma
Township and Range: SW 1/4 Section 33, Township 18N, Range 5E and NE 1/4 Section 4, Township 17N, Range 5E
Latitude/Longitude: 35.98581533, -96.78024867
Site Type: Abandoned Refinery
Area: 0.31 square miles/200 acres
National Priorities List: Final Listing Date – July 22, 1999
Current Status: Cleanup complete
Cleanup Oversight Agencies: DEQ and EPA
Lead Agency: EPA
Office: DEQ, Land Protection Division, (405) 702-5100
DEQ Site Project Manager: Michael Lea, (405) 702-5195
DEQ Press Contact: Erin Hatfield, (405) 702-7119
Site History and Background:
The Hudson Refinery site is a 200-acre, abandoned, crude oil refinery that was active from 1922 to 1982. Located north and south of State Highway 33 on the west side of Cushing, the North and South Refinery properties include about 165 and 35 acres, respectively. The refinery produced liquid propane gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel oils, and coke. More than 60 years of production activities generated wastes which resulted in the release of many hazardous substances at the site. EPA performed emergency removal actions in 1998 and 1999. Activities included removal of asbestos and tetraethyl lead from storage tanks, demolition of the refinery structures, and disposal of laboratory chemicals and other wastes. The site was included in the National Priorities List (NPL) in July 1999. In September 2002, EPA, DEQ, Army Corp of Engineers, and Coast Guard began removing asbestos, production chemicals, catalysts, and unsafe structures on the North Refinery. This removal action was completed in June 2003. From 2004 through 2006, DEQ and EPA investigated and evaluated options for cleanup. The investigation identified the types, quantities, and locations of contaminants and the Feasibility Study developed ways to address the contamination problems. EPA identified Land O’ Lakes, Inc. (LOL), a Minnesota cooperative corporation, as a former owner of the site based on a merger between LOL and Midland Cooperatives, Inc. (Midland). Midland owned and operated the site from 1943 through 1977. On January 6, 2009, EPA issued a Unilateral Administrative Order (UAO) directing that LOL perform the Remedial Design and Remedial Action at the site.
- Cleanup phase was completed on October 6, 2010
- Cleanup included excavation, stabilization, and transportation to a regulated off-site disposal facility of:
- Asbestos Containing Material (ACM)
- Coke tar
- Scrap metal
- Contaminated soil
- Contaminated sediment from waste ponds and sumps
- Surface water from ponds with contaminated sediment was treated on-site and discharged into Skull Creek
- Light Non-aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL) was removed from an on-site well and monitoring has been implemented
- Ground water monitoring plans were developed during remedial design and are being implemented to ensure contaminated ground water does not move off-site
- Contaminated soils and sediments, coke tar, ACM work, scrap metal, and tanks were removed from the site in 2010
- Additional contaminated soil from the highway right-of-way was removed in November 23, 2012
Did You Know?
Children got involved in getting the Hudson Site cleaned up. In April 1998, Cushing Middle School students started a letter writing campaign to get public officials to investigate the abandoned refineries in the vicinity of Cushing.
Land Use Restrictions:
The process and tank areas of the site appropriate for commercial/industrial reuse; and Institutional Controls (ICs) (deed notices) have been placed on the property. The deed notices identify the reason for the notice, the affected property, the remedy, engineering controls, land use restrictions, and ground water use restrictions prohibiting use of the shallow ground water. The City of Cushing currently has an ordinance in place that limits access to the site to EPA, DEQ, Land O’Lakes, and remediation contractors. The site is currently zoned for industrial use.
- Sources of Contamination: Contamination stemmed from the production of liquid propane gas, gasoline, aviation fuel, diesel fuel, and fuel oils during refining operations. The North Refinery consisted of a refinery process area, a hydrofluoric acid (HF) alkylation plant, a tetraethyl lead (TEL) building, associated above ground storage tanks (ASTs), treatment pond, and office, storage, and maintenance buildings. The South Refinery consisted of a refinery process area, a TEL building, laboratory buildings, ASTs, and an unlined coke pond.
- Contaminants of Concern: benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzene, arsenic, lead, mercury, chromium, thallium, asbestos, light non-aqueous phase liquid, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, TEL, hydrochloric acid, hydrosulfuric acid, and calcium hypochlorite
- Media Affected: Past operations at the site resulted in the discharge of contaminants to the on-site soil, waste pond sediment, pond surface water, and ground water. The principal chemicals of concern for each media affected are as follows:
- Soil: benzo(a)pyrene, arsenic, and lead
- Waste Pond Sediment: benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene
- Pond Surface Water: benzo(a)pyrene
- Ground Water: benzene
- Surface Water Impacted: Skull Creek
- Ground Water Impacted: Vanoss Aquifer